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"The Golden Wand of Medicine"

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Caduceus (heralds staff)


Caduceus (kã-dû'sî-ûs) (Kah-du'seus) [L., a herald's wand].

In Mythology, the wand or staff carried by Hermes or Mercury having two serpents entwined around it and surmounted by two wings. Used as the medical insignia of certain medical groups such as the U.S. Army Medical Corps. Even though it is sometimes used to symbol the medical profession, the staff of Aesculapius, q.v., Roman god of medicine, is usually considered to be the more appropriate symbol.

Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary; F.A. Davis

In The United States the caduceus is the more popular of the two commonly used symbols of medicine. The other symbol is the staff of the Greek and Roman demigod of medicine, Aesculapius. The Caduceus was the magic rod of Hermes, the messenger of the gods, "deity of wealth, god of trade and travelers, of commerce, manual skill, oratory and eloquence, of thieves, and of the wind and patron of the athletes. The Caduceus was adopted as the U.S. Army's Medical Departments official insignia in 1902.

In Greek and Roman mythology, a magic wand consisting of a rod topped by wings and intertwined by two snakes (kerykeion, caduceus in Greek; kerykeion skeptron meaning "a heralds wand"; keryx meaning announce or herald) was depicted as a medicinal or magical tool symbolized to indicate healing and immortality in literature and drawings from the era before Christ. The fabled wand or rod, the caduceus, was carried by Hermes in Greek myths and Mercury in Roman mythology as the messenger of the gods. Originally, the caduceus was represented as a simple staff wound about with two white ribbons. It is a figure that consists of two entwined serpents encircling a wand or rod. It was a symbol of authority and inviolability and protected the herald who carried it. In Homer's Lliad and Odyssey the caduceus is often mentioned as a type of magic wand by which Hermes opened and closed the eyes of mortals. It was therefore connected with death and the journey through the underworld. Later myth says Hermes once threw his magic wand at two snakes fighting on the ground. The snakes became entangled in the the magic wand and have been attached to it ever since. The wings at the top were added in later Greek and Roman art. In Virgil's Aeneid (book 4) the caduceus is said to have been given to Mercury by Apollo in exchange for Lyre. Milton, calling it Hermes' "opiate rod" in Paradise Lost (book 11.133), refers to the belief that the caduceus is associated with medicine because it was one of the symbols of Aesculapius, the god of medicine for the ancients. Le Sage, in Gil Blas (1715) writes; "I did not think the post Mercury-in-chief quite so honorable as it was called... and resolved to abandon the Caduceus [give up the medical profession] for ever."
Some confusion exists between the wand carried by Hermes and the Staff of the demigod Aesculapius which is classically characterized as a single serpent encircling a rough hewn tree branch. The Staff of Aesculapius is truly the more legitimate symbol of medicine, however the Caduceus has been adopted as the more commonly used symbol in medicine.
According to mythology, Hermes threw his magic wand at two fighting snakes. The snakes became entwined as they stopped fighting. The actual origin of the Caduceus is from two sources. The first was from the Babylonia god Ningizzida and the second was from a shepherd's crook that was forked on top.

It actually goes all the way back to the book of Genesis. Moses had to make a copper serpent for the Israelites to look at when bitten by poisonous snakes (during a plague that God had sent) in order to be cured.

In the early twentieth century A. J. Frothingham had presented to the Philological Association and the Archaeological Institute that the real character of Hermes and his kerykeion could be traced back to early Mesopotamia. He believed that the Babylonian Caduceus evolved to the Greek Caduceus. A libation vase which is stored on exhibit in the Louvre was excavated from the ancient Mesopotamian city of Lagash. The inscription on the vase reads: "To the god Ningizzida, his god Guidea, patesi of Lagash, for the prolongation of his life, has dedicated this." Also on the vase is a figure of two entwined snakes on a rod. The vase has been dated as early as 4000 to 3000 B.C. There are other images cast into the vase that can correlate an association with the caduceus. Ningizzida was the predecessor of the Egyptian god Thor. Ninazu, who was called the "Lord of Healing" was the father of Ningizzida. It was also represented in other examples of artifacts and emblems from that era. Among the Hittites, a third century Roman coin, a caduceus-god like mysterious symbol is shown between two seated gods. These were possibly the gods of Hierapolis of Syria. It was also stated by Professor Frothingham that the caduceus of the Hitties and the Babylonians was brought to the Etruscans of primitive Rome. Aesculpius' daughter or wife Hygia, the Greek demigoddess of health, is usually depicted with a serpent entwined and sometimes with an Aesculpius Staff.

Even though Frothingham might have been studying two different symbols characterized as a rod topped by a U or V shaped end. Or whether or not it was two snakes or a two headed snake or whether or not it is a rod or a staff. They all represented the same god or gods depending on which era and which culture is being addressed. It is said that Ningizzida is the same as Babu who in turn is the Greek Hermes. Also, early illustrations of the "Babylonian Mother Goddess" who is identified as Ishtar, who in turn is associated with the Greek goddess Aphrodite had a caduceus in them. More evaluation needs to be done and it will sometimes be left to the author or the audience to decide.
The earliest caduei were an 8 shaped figure with the top circle opened. Snakes were added as early as the fifth century B.C. but remained unusual until the Middle Ages or the early Renaissance period. The wings were added in the fourth century B.C.
So what is this infatuation with serpents. Snakes are referred to in many cultures, religions, and myths. Cults and ancient Indian tribal and modern African tribal rituals worship snakes. Serpent imaginary even occurred where there are no snakes like New Zealand where eels assumed this function. A temple in Travancore India was dedicated to the Snake God. Similar serpent temples were built by the Druids at Stonehenge and Arbury. The Persians saw a celestial serpent in the rainbow. American Indians called the Milky Way the path of the serpent. American Indians gave ritual to the rattlesnake, the African tribes to the python, and the Asiatics to the cobra. This all do to the fact that the snake sheds its skin and thus renews its strength and youth and lives forever as believed by the tribes. The Serpent was and is associated as the regular symbol attributed to the worshipful dead. This demonstrated not only by the Greeks, but by present Zulu and other tribes in Africa. They believe that the souls of the departed are lodged in snakes.


Humans alone are infected by about thirty species of worms, including pinworms and hookworms. One of the larger types causes thin, serpent-like ridges when it is present just under the skin. For thousands of years, healers have removed the "serpents" by winding them out very slowly, around a stick. The symbol of the medical profession continues to be a single serpent wound around a staff. This would seem to refer to The Staff of Aesculapius which is PART of the star of life.

Another theory explaining why the star of life has only one snake and the Staff of Aesculapius is used is that: physicians hold the power over life and death, and E.M.S. personnel only have the power over life...?

And: Another theory from John Wallour:
The caduceus (2 serpents on a eagle winged stick) is one of the most ancient of symbols. This was originally the symbol for the Sirian-Anunnaki Creator God, Enki. The Savior God of Noah (Utnapishtim). The symbolism in the caduceus reflects the Kabbalah Tree of Life.

It has been theorized, this symbol was derived from sightings of eagles carrying away poisonous snakes in its beak. Thus the caduceus, a symbol for healing, represents God (in the form of an eagle) carrying away and disposing of the poison of disease (in the form of a snake).


This is what John Wallour sees in the caduceus, ankh, and cross:
The sun rising over a river. The banks meander,
snake like. Perhaps it is from this very natural
inspiration we get the caduceus/ankh/cross as the universal
symbol of God, the river of LIFE.

The Star of Life

Aesculapius' staff apparently had only one snake wrapped around it:

"The Star of Life"
The Star of Life
If you stay here long enough, the snake might come out and become entangled and climb the staff as it did for Hermes.
Once it climbs up, it will continue forever at a faster rate...



How the Star of Life became our symbol and trademark:

It started with the red cross, which is a ® trade mark of the American Red Cross (ARC) and the International Red Cross (ICRC). EMS organizations in the late '60s and early '70s used it or an orange variation. The ARC didn't approve of this and it is a violation of an international treaty, backed up by federal law. The treaty and law states that the red cross in any form cannot be use by anyone not connected with the ICRC. The only corporation that does so is Johnson & Johnson®, because they were grandfathered under the federal law. The first aid groups under the Society for Creative Anachronism had to change their badge two years ago when this was not-so-gently pointed out to them by people who wanted to make a political name for themselves.

The ARC has gone to a number of legal lengths in the past with people who have used the Red Cross ensign. The ICRC has made great effort to protect the indiscriminate use of the Red Cross symbol which... as an important part of the Geneva Conventions, should be used in vehicles and buildings to protect wounded combatants and hospitals. The "red cross" symbol's supposed primary use is to protect against violence (by agreement) during conditions of war for humanitarian purposes (Convention of 1864). It's use on civilian "peacetime" equipment probably concerned some. Modern military ambulances in the U.S. continue to post both emblems.

The Department of Transportation (DOT) took the Medic Alert symbol (red) and changed it to blue, with flat (not convex) ends in the early '70s. Note that the Star Of Life used by the National Registry of EMTs is slightly different. DOT made it their own TM on a white square, and it is ONLY to be used on EMS vehicles that meet the KKK-1822-8 specs.

Designed by Leo R. Schwartz, Chief of the EMS Branch, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the "Star of Life" was created after the American National Red Cross complained in 1973 that they objected to the common use of an Omaha orange cross on a square background of reflectorized white which clearly imitated the Red Cross symbol. NHTSA investigated and felt the complaint was justified.

The newly designed, six barred cross, was adapted from the Medical Identification Symbol of the American Medical Association and was registered as a certification mark on February 1, 1977 with the Commissioner of Patents and Trade-marks in the name of the National Highway Traffic Safety and Administration. The trademark will remain in effect for twenty years from this date.

Each of the bars of the blue "Star of Life" represents the six system function of the EMS, as illustrated below: The capitol letter "R" enclosed in the circle on the right represents the fact that the symbol is a "registered" certification.

As stated above, the snake and staff in the center of the symbol portray the staff Asclepius who, according to Greek mythology, was the son of Apollo (god of light, truth and prophecy). Supposedly Asclepius learned the art of healing from the centaur Cheron; but Zeus - king of the gods, was fearful that because of the Asclepius knowledge, all men might be rendered immortal. Rather than have this occur, Zeus slew Asclepius with a thunderbolt. Later, Asclepius was worshipped as a god andpeople slept in his temples, as it was rumored that he effected cures of prescribed remedies to the sick during their dreams.Eventually, Zues restored Asclepius to life, making him a god.

Asclepius was usually shown in a standing position, dressed in a long cloat, holding a staff with a serpent coiled around it. The staff has since come to represent medicine's only symbol. In the Caduceus, used by physicians and the Military Medical Corp., the staff is winged and has two serpents intertwined. Even though this does not hold any medical relevance in origin, it represents the magic wand of the Greek deity, Hermes, messenger of the gods.

The staff with the single serpent is the symbol for Medicine and Health and the winged staff is the symbol for peace. The Staff with the single serpent represents the time when Asclepius had a very difficult patient that he could not cure, so he consulted a snake for advice and the patient survived. The snake had coiled around Asclepius's staff in order to be head to head with him as an equal when talking. The Winged staff came about when Mercury saw two serpents fighting,and unable to stop them any other way placed his staff between them causing them to coil up his winged staff.

The Bible, in Numbers 21:9, makes reference to a serpent on a staff: "Moses accordingly made a bronze serpent and mounted it on a pole and whenever anyone who had been bitten by a serpent looked at the bronze serpent, he recovered.

Who may use the "Star of Life" symbol? NHTSA has exclusive rights to monitor its use throughout the United States. Its use on emergency medical vehicles certifies that such vehicles meet the U.S.Department of Transportation standards and certify that the emergency medical care personnel who use it have been trained to meet these standards. Its use on road maps and highway signs indicates the location or access to qualified emergency care services. No other use of the symbol is allowed, except as listed below:

Originally the SOL was supposed to be different for the different types of EMS personnel. For administrative and dispatch personnel, the SOL was to have a silver colored edge and the staff of Aesculapius (here's the Greek), a silver colored serpent. For EMT's and Paramedic's patches, the edge was supposed to be gold in color with a gold serpent.

States and Federal agencies which have emergency medical services involvement are authorized to permit use of the "Star of Life" symbol summarized as follows:

1. As a means of identification for medical equipment and supplies for installation and use in the Emergency Medical Care Vehicle-Ambulance.
2. To point to the location of qualified medical care services and access to such facilities.
3. For use on shoulder patches worn only by personnel who have satisfactorily completed DOT training courses or approved equivalents, and for persons who by title and function administer,directly supervise, or participate in all or part of National, State, or community EMS programs.
4. On EMS personnel items - badges, plaques, buckles, etc.
5. Books, pamphlets, manuals, reports or other printed material having direct EMS application.
6. The "Star of Life" symbol may be worn by administrative personnel, project directors and staff, councils and advisory groups. If shoulder patches are worn, they should be plain blue "Star of Life" on a white square or round background. The function, identifying letters or words should be printed on bars and attached across the bottom separately. The edges of the basic patch and functional bars are to be embroidered.

Special function identification and physical characteristics must be adhered to when applying the "Star of Life" to personal items, as follows:

a) Administrative and dispatcher personnel must use a silver colored edge, and the staff of Asclepius should be with a silver colored serpent. These items do not need a white background.
b) The shoulder patches and other EMS patches may be displayed on uniform pockets and the symbol can also be placed on collars and headgear.

The blue Star of Life symbol was designed in its specific configuration by Leo R. Schwartz, chief of the EMS branch of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The six barred cross was adapted from the personal Medical Identification Symbol of the American Medical Association.

For EMS, the bars represent the six system functions:

  1. Detection
  2. Reporting
  3. Response
  4. On Scene Care
  5. Care in Transit
  6. Transfer to Definitive Care

by Mitch Mendler; E.M.T. Fire Fighter Paramedic


References:

The Golden Wand of Medicine, A History of the Caduceus Symbol in Medicine.
by, Walter J. Friedlander; Greenwood Press


The Facts On File Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend,
by, Anthony S. Mercatante


Some of this information on the "Star of Life" was obtained from "Lytes and Sirens," an EMS newsletter published by the Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Highway Safety.
The balance of info on The Star of Life was extracted from a file found on the "net:"
The information used from that file came from the following resources:


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